The Capability Maturity Model CMM  is a development model created after a study of data collected from organizations that contracted with the U. Department of Defensewho funded the research. The term "maturity" relates to the degree of formality and optimization of processes, from ad hoc practices, to formally defined steps, to managed result metrics, to active optimization of the processes.
The model's aim is to improve existing software development processes, but it can also be applied to other processes. The Capability Maturity Model was originally developed as a tool for objectively assessing the ability of government contractors' processes to implement a contracted software project. It was later published in Cobit maturity model diagram report in  and as a book by the same authors in Though the model comes from the field of software developmentit is also used as a model to aid in business processes generally, and has also been used extensively worldwide in government Cobit maturity model diagram, commerce, and industry.
In the s, the use of computers grew more widespread, more flexible and less costly.
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Organizations began to adopt computerized information systems, and the demand for software development grew significantly. Many processes for software development were in their infancy, with few standard or "best practice" approaches defined. As a result, the growth was accompanied by growing pains: Individuals such as Edward Yourdon Larry ConstantineGerald Weinberg Tom DeMarco and David Parnas began to publish articles and books with research results in an attempt to professionalize the software-development processes.
In the s, several US military projects involving software subcontractors ran over-budget and were completed far later than planned, if at all. Nolanwho, in Cobit maturity model diagram the stages of growth model for IT organizations. Watts Humphrey began developing his process maturity concepts during the later stages of his year career at IBM. At the request of the U. Department of Defense in evaluating the capability of software contractors as part of awarding contracts.
The result of the Air Force study was a model for the military to use as an objective evaluation of software subcontractors' process capability maturity. Crosby in his book "Quality is Free".
Humphrey based his approach on the staged evolution of a system of software development practices within an organization, rather than measuring the maturity of each separate development process independently. The CMM has thus been used by different organizations as a general and powerful tool for understanding and then improving general business process performance.
Organizations were originally assessed using a process maturity questionnaire and a Software Capability Evaluation method devised by Humphrey and his colleagues at the Software Engineering Institute. The full representation of the Capability Maturity Model as a set of defined process areas and practices at each of the five maturity levels was initiated inwith Version 1.
The CMM model's application in software development has sometimes been problematic.
Applying multiple models that are not integrated within and across an organization could be costly in training, appraisals, and improvement activities. The CMM was originally intended as a tool to evaluate the ability of government contractors to perform a contracted software project.
Though it comes from the area of software development, it can be, has been, and continues to be widely applied as a general model of the maturity of process e. A maturity model can be viewed as a set of structured levels that describe how well the behaviors, practices and processes of an organization can reliably and sustainably produce required outcomes.
A maturity model can be used as a benchmark for Cobit maturity model diagram and as an aid to Cobit maturity model diagram - for example, for comparative assessment of different organizations where there is something in common that can be used as a basis for comparison. In the case of the CMM, for example, the basis for comparison would be the organizations' software development processes.
There are five levels defined along the continuum of the model and, according to the Cobit maturity model diagram While not rigorous, the empirical evidence to date supports this belief". Within each of these maturity levels are Key Process Areas which characterise that level, and for each such area there are five factors: These are not necessarily unique to CMM, representing — as they do — the stages that organizations must go through on the way to becoming mature.